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Reading books Psychology A very interesting statement of one of our contemporaries is that any person, to one degree or another, is both a psychologist and a philosopher - they say, life forces him to. On the one hand, the main driving force of every person is the craving for knowledge, the desire to reach certain social heights, the desire to be wise in any everyday situations - and this is the philosophy of life.
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Psychology is an effective and efficient tool in mastering the laws of the inner world, human activity and behavior.
In the case of a real individual understanding of the thoughts of the authors, the horizons of being are truly boundless for the reader. Such a person will receive not only the most powerful theoretical basis in understanding the world, but also practical guidance for action and behavior in almost every sphere of life. Psychology as one of the basic sciences has absorbed many segments and currents, the representatives of each of which were and are the best minds of mankind. It will be quite difficult for an inexperienced reader not only to understand, but even to master the world philosophical thought. The number of people interested in psychology grows hundreds of times every day. And this is accessibly : everyone wants to understand the laws according to which events develop in his family, at school, in the yard, at work, on the street. Mankind has accumulated a huge knowledge base in the field of psychology over the years of its existence, and this base is replenished almost daily by many authors.

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ctor, whether one looks from one eye to the other, or from some more distant object to one's own eyes, the eyes may be seen now in one position and now in another, but never in motion." This phenomenon was described by Graefe,[6] who believed it was to be explained in the same way as the illusion which one experiences in a railway coach when another train is moving parallel with the coach in which one sits, in the same direction and at the same speed. The second train, of course, appears motionless.

[5] Dodge, Raymond, PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW, 1900, VII., p. 456.

[6] Graefe, A., Archiv f. Ophthalmologie, 1895, XLI., 3, S. 136.

This explanation of Graefe is not to be admitted, however, since in the case of eye-movement there are muscular sensations of one's own activity, which are not present when one merely sits in a coach. These sensations of eye-movement are in all cases so intimately connected with our perception of the movement of objects, that they may not be in this case simpl

get such well-known things as their own name, place of birth, or age; were unable to recognize the denominations of coins, etc. He noted, however, that although the answers these patients gave were false, they had a certain relation to the question. For instance, coins of a lower denomination would be mistaken for higher ones, postage stamps were called paper, etc. They also showed a marked tendency to elaborate all sorts of false reminiscences about their past life. Along with this failure of the simplest thought and memory activity, these individuals were otherwise well-ordered and behaved.

The reader will at once recognize in the above description the well-known Ganser symptom-complex, the several variations of which have been so frequently discussed of late years. Ganser[5] further showed that these cases frequently evidenced vivid auditory and visual hallucinations. At the same time there existed a more or less distinct clouding of consciousness, with the simultaneous presence of hysterical stigma

nately we are not without a clue to his methods--henot only had the best of teachers, but continued his training all throughhis life. When we consider his labors, the claim of the busy man of to-daythat he has "no time" seems almost frivolous.

The thoughts of Marcus Aurelius (of which the following citations arefrom Long's translation) were written, not for self exploration, nor fromdelight in rounded periods, but for his own guidance. That he was in factguided by his principles no better illustration offers than his magnanimitytoward the adherents of one who would have usurped the throne of theCæsars. The observation of Long that fine thoughts and moral dissertationsfrom men who have not worked and suffered may be read, but will beforgotten, seems to have been exemplified in the comparative oblivion intowhich the philosophy of Epicurus has fallen.

It is with the ethical side of the philosophy of Marcus Aurelius that weare concerned, and with that portion only which bears on the question of

and toAgatha, who was looking charming in white and pink,with glittering wheat-ears in her hair, when Wilsoncame twitching at my sleeve.

"You want something positive, Gilroy," said he, drawingme apart into a corner. "My dear fellow, I have aphenomenon--a phenomenon!"

I should have been more impressed had I not heard thesame before. His sanguine spirit turns every fire-flyinto a star.

"No possible question about the bona fides this time,"said he, in answer, perhaps, to some little gleam ofamusement in my eyes. "My wife has known her for manyyears. They both come from Trinidad, you know. MissPenclosa has only been in England a month or two, andknows no one outside the university circle, but Iassure you that the things she has told us suffice inthemselves to establish clairvoyance upon an absolutelyscientific basis. There is nothing like her, amateuror professional. Come and be introduced!"

I like none of these mystery-mongers, but the amateurleast of all. With the paid perfo

of the trouble, the invalidgets "well" only to drag out a miserable existence or to get veryill again.

Although any nervous suffering is worth while if it is the means ofteaching us how to avoid nervous strain, it certainly is farpreferable to avoid the strain without the extreme pain of a nervousbreakdown.

To point out many of these pernicious habits and to suggest apractical remedy for each and all of them is the aim of this book,and for that reason common examples in various phases of every-daylife are used as illustrations.

When there is no organic trouble there can be no doubt that _defectsof character, inherited or acquired, are at the root of all nervousillness._ If this can once be generally recognized and acknowledged,especially by the sufferers themselves, we are in a fair way towardeliminating such illness entirely.

The trouble is people suffer from mortification and an unwillingnessto look their bad habits in the face. They have not learned thathumiliation can be wholeso

cure of diseases by mental means. Müller's observation was in advance of his times, but could not be expected to include the results of the latest researches of modern science.

For a great many years physicians have recognized that not only are all diseases made worse by an incorrect mental attitude, but that some diseases are the direct result of worry and other mental disturbances. The mental force which causes colored water to act as an emetic, or postage-stamps to produce a blister, can also produce organic diseases of a serious nature. The large mental factor in the cause of diseases is generally admitted, and it seems reasonable to infer that what is caused by mental influence may be cured by the same means. There is no restriction in the power of the mind in causing disease, and should we restrict the mind as a factor in the cure? The trouble seems to be in the explanation. People ask, "How can the mind have such an effect upon the body?" and to the answer of this question we must now turn


1. Mentality of the men of the Revolution. The respective influence of violent and feeble characters 2. Psychology of the Commissaries or Representatives ``on Mission'' 3. Danton and Robespierre 4. Fouquier-Tinville, Marat, Billaud-Varenne, &c. 5. The destiny of those Members of the Convention who survived the Revolution




THE LAST CONVULSIONS OF ANARCHY. THE DIRECTORY 1. Psychology of the Directory 2. Despotic Government of the Directory. Recrudescence of the Terror 3. The Advent of Bonaparte 4. Causes of the Duration of the Revolution


THE RESTORATION OF ORDER. THE CONSULAR REPUBLIC 1. How the work of the Revolution was confirmed by the Consulate 2. The re-organisation of France by the Consulate 3. Psychological elements which determined the success o

rewhat might perhaps be called the outside elements of life. Theseonce normally faced, cease to exist as impediments, dwindle away,and finally disappear altogether.

Thus we are enabled to get nearer the kernel, and have a growingrealization of life itself.

Civilization may give a man new freedom, a freedom beyond any powerof description or conception, except to those who achieve it, or itmay so bind him body and soul that in moments when he recognizes hisnervous contractions he would willingly sell his hope of immortalityto be a wild horse or tiger for the rest of his days.

These stones in the way are the result of a perversion ofcivilization, and the cause of much contraction and unnecessarysuffering.

There is the physical stone. If the health of the body were attendedto as a matter of course, as its cleanliness is attended to by thoseof us who are more civilized, how much easier life might be! Indeed,the various trippings on, and endeavors to encircle, this physicalstone, raise man


Two years ago, an historic appreciation of the discovery of etherwas presented here by Professor Welch, and last year an addresson medical research was given by President Eliot. I, therefore,will not attempt a general address, but will invite yourattention to an experimental and clinical study. In presentingthe summaries of the large amount of data in these researches,I acknowledge with gratitude the great assistance rendered bymy associates, Dr. D. H. Dolley, Dr. H. G. Sloan, Dr. J. B. Austin,and Dr. M. L. Menten.

  • From the H. K. Cushing Laboratory of Experimental Medicine,Western Reserve University, Cleveland.

    The scope of this paper may be explained by a concrete example.When a barefoot boy steps on a sharp stone there is an immediate dischargeof nervous energy in his effort to escape from the wounding stone.This is not a voluntary act. It is not due to his own personal experience--his ontogeny--but is due to the experience of his progenitorsduring the vast perio