Genre Science. Page - 1
the Hearts of Men to =Compassion= and =Tenderness=, this greatest of Evils is found to have the contrary Effect. Whether Men of wicked Minds, through Hopes of Impunity, at these Times of Disorder and Confusion, give their evil Disposition full Scope, which ordinarily is restrained by the Fear of Punishment; or whether it be, that a constant View of Calamities and Distress does so pervert the Minds of Men, as to blot out all Sentiments of Humanity; or whatever else be the Cause: certain it is, that at such Times, when it should be expected to see all Men unite in one common Endeavour, to moderate the publick Misery; quite otherwise, they grow regardless of each other, and Barbarities are often practised, unknown at other Times. Accordingly =Diemerbroek= informs us, that he himself had often seen these =Hospitals= committed to the Charge of Villains, whose Inhumanity has suffered great Numbers to perish by Neglect, and that sometimes they have even smothered such as have been very weak, or have had nauseous Ulc
The protection of a water frontier--Pile villages of ancienttimes--Modern pile dwellings--Their geographicdistribution--River-dwellers in old and popular lands--Man'sencroachment upon the sea by reclamation of land--The struggle with thewater--Mound villages in river flood-plains--Social and political gainby control of the water--A factor in early civilization of aridlands--The economy of the water--Fisheries--Factors in maritimeexpansion--Fisheries as nurseries of seamen--Anthropo-geographicimportance of navigation.
THE ANTHROPO-GEOGRAPHY OF RIVERS
Rivers as intermediaries between land and sea--Sea navigation mergesinto river navigation--Historical importance of seas and oceansinfluenced by their debouching streams--Lack of coast articulationssupplied by rivers--River highways as basis of commercialpreëminence--Importance of rivers in large countries--Rivers as highwaysof expansion--Determinants of routes in arid or semi-aridlands--Increa
rate from behind into the branchial cavity. Now these crabs, which have become more or less estranged from the water, belong to the most different families--the Raninidae (Ranina), Eriphinae (Eriphia gonagra), Grapsoidae (Aratus, Sesarma, etc.), Ocypodidae (Gelasimus, Ocypoda), etc., and the separation of these families must doubtless be referred to a much earlier period than the habit of leaving the water displayed by some of their members. The arrangements connected with aerial respiration, therefore, could not be inherited from a common ancestor, and could scarcely be accordant in their construction. If there were any such accordance not referable to accidental resemblance among them, it would have to be laid in the scale as evidence against the correctness of Darwin's views. I shall show hereafter how in this case the result, far from presenting such contradictions, was rather in the most complete harmony with what might be predicted from Darwin's theory.
(FIGURE 1. Melita exilii n. sp., male, enla
wenot see that this woman's nerves were crying out for help; that, asher wisest friends, they were appealing for right ways of living; thatthey were pleading for development of the body that had been onlyhalf-trained; that they were beseeching a replacing of morbidness offeeling by those lost joyous happiness-days? Were they not fairlycursing the wrong which had robbed her of the hope and rights of herwomanhood?
A new life came when she was twenty-eight, with the saving helper whoheard the cry of the suffering nerves, and interpreted their message.She had told him all. His wise kindness made it easy to tell all. Heshowed her the wrong invalidism thoughts, the unhappy, depressing,devitalizing attitude toward death. He revealed truths unthought byher of manhood and womanhood. He pointed out the poisonous trail ofher enmity, and she put it from her. He inspired her to make friendswith her nerves, who were so devotedly striving to save her. Simple,definite counsel he gave, for her body's sake. H
light, from the Record and State PaperOffice, and historical societies, will throw much light on thesubject]; and an abundant harvest offers in examining them, bywhich to make an amusing book, illustrative of our provincialwords and ancient manners. I think we cannot avoid arriving at theconclusion, that the Anglo-Saxon dialect, of which I conceive theWestern dialect to be a striking portion, has been graduallygiving way to our polished idiom; and is considered a barbarism,and yet many of the sounds of that dialect are found inHolland and Germany, as a part of the living language of thesecountries. I am contented with having thus far elucidated thelanguage of my native county. I have omitted several words, whichI supposed provincial, and which are frequent to the west, as theyare found in the modern dictionaries, still I have allowed a few,which are in Richardson's Johnson.
Thee is used for the nominative _thou_; which latterword is seldom used, diphthong sounds used in thi
I do not know, but it must be bad indeed if it inculcates more falsities than are at present foisted upon the young in the name of the Church.
I make these remarks simply in the interests of fair play. Far be it from me to suggest that it is desirable that the inculcation of the doctrine of evolution should be made a prominent feature of general education. I agree with Professor Virchow so far, but for very different reasons. It is not that I think the evidence of that doctrine insufficient, but that I doubt whether it is the business of a teacher to plunge the young mind into difficult problems concerning the origin of the existing condition of things. I am disposed to think that the brief period of school-life would be better spent in obtaining an acquaintance with nature, as it is; in fact, in laying a firm foundation for the further knowledge Which is needed for the critical examination of the dogmas, whether scientific or anti-scientific, which are presented to the adult mind. At present, educati
to the light, which are so general throughout the vegetable kingdom, and occasionally from the light, or transversely with respect to it, are all modified
* See Mr. Vines' excellent discussion ('Arbeiten des Bot. Instituts in Würzburg,' B. II. pp. 142, 143, 1878) on this intricate subject. Hofmeister's observations ('Jahreschrifte des Vereins für Vaterl. Naturkunde in Würtemberg,' 1874, p. 211) on the curious movements of Spirogyra, a plant consisting of a single row of cells, are valuable in relation to this subject.
[page 4] forms of circumnutation; as again are the equally prevalent movements of stems, etc., towards the zenith, and of roots towards the centre of the earth. In accordance with these conclusions, a considerable difficulty in the way of evolution is in part removed, for it might have been asked, how did all these diversified movements for the most different purposes first arise? As the case stands, we know that there is always movement in progress, and its amplitud
t I did not expect to be called upon to speak so soon. Still the bare suggestion that this is the fit and proper time for speech sent me immediately to my task: from it I have returned with such results as I could gather, and also with the wish that those results were more worthy than they are of the greatness of my theme.
It is not my intention to lay before you a life of Faraday in the ordinary acceptation of the term. The duty I have to perform is to give you some notion of what he has done in the world; dwelling incidentally on the spirit in which his work was executed, and introducing such personal traits as may be necessary to the completion of your picture of the philosopher, though by no means adequate to give you a complete idea of the man.
The newspapers have already informed you that Michael Faraday was born at Newington Butts, on September 22, 1791, and that he died at Hampton Court, on August 25, 1867. Believing, as I do, in the general truth of the doctrine of hereditary transmissi
in a Norse Saga as where they are; and if the varnish-brush of later respectability has passed over these memoirs ofthe mighty men of a wild age, here and there, it has notsucceeded in effacing, or even in seriously obscuring, theessential characteristics of the theology traditionally ascribedto their epoch.
There is nothing that I have met with in the results of Biblicalcriticism inconsistent with the conviction that these books giveus a fairly trustworthy account of Israelitic life and thoughtin the times which they cover; and, as such, apart from thegreat literary merit of many of their episodes, they possess theinterest of being, perhaps, the oldest genuine history, as apartfrom mere chronicles on the one hand and mere legends on theother, at present accessible to us.
But it is often said with exultation by writers of one party,and often admitted, more or less unwillingly, by theiropponents, that these books are untrustworthy, by reason ofbeing full of obviously unhistoric tales. And
f making a wrong deduction from the phenomenonof the calcination of the metals, because of a very importantfactor, the action of the air, which was generally overlooked.And he urged his colleagues of the laboratories to give greaterheed to certain other phenomena that might pass unnoticed in theordinary calcinating process. In his work, The Sceptical Chemist,he showed the reasons for doubting the threefold constitution ofmatter; and in his General History of the Air advanced some noveland carefully studied theories as to the composition of theatmosphere. This was an important step, and although Boyle is notdirectly responsible for the phlogiston theory, it is probablethat his experiments on the atmosphere influenced considerablythe real founders, Becker and Stahl.
Boyle gave very definitely his idea of how he thought air mightbe composed. "I conjecture that the atmospherical air consists ofthree different kinds of corpuscles," he says; "the first, thosenumberless particles which, in the fo